Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy red blood cells. Background: Naphthalene ingestion and skin or inhalational exposure (accidental or deliberate) is an under-recognized cause of a severe toxidrome in regions where it is commonly used (e.g., mothballs in households). Ingestion, either accidental or by deliberate self-harm, can occur due to its abundance as well as its candy-resembling appearance. The substance with the formula C 20 H 12 is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. 92-3141. Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: No useful data on acute inhalation toxicity are available on which to base the IDLH for naphthalene. The results of this study indicate that the LC 50 for naphthalene vapour in Wistar albino rats is greater than 77.7 ppm, (0.4 mg/L) naphthalene. Introduction Naphthalene is commonly found in moth repellent products such as mothballs in developing countries. Although naphthalene keeps invaders at bay, it does not affect the termites.Naphthalene not only keeps ants and To address this concern, mice were exposed to naphthalene by inhalation (1.515 ppm; 24 h), thereby bypassing first-pass hepatic involvement. Its non-commercial name is naphthalene, and it comes in pellets, liquid, or flakes. The poison repels their major enemy, ants, as well as microscopic worms, bacteria and fungus in the soil. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Alcohol used in cleaners are poisonous. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. The skin is the largest organ of your body and a common exposure site for liquid and airborne chemicals. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. 5.2 and 5.3). These experts collectively have knowledge of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methyl naphthalene's physical and chemical properties, toxicokinetics, key health end points, mechanisms of action, human and animal exposure, and quantification of The amount necessary to produce lethargy or seizures is not known but may be as little as 12 g. Several infants developed serious poisoning from clothes and bedding that had been stored in naphthalene mothballs. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. What are the causes of naphthalene balls? Acute hemolysis may occur, especially in patients with G6PD deficiency.

As discussed in Chapter 2 and Appendix A, several MRLs for naphthalene (chronic-duration inhalation, acute-duration oral, and intermediate-duration oral) and chronic-duration oral MRLs for 1-methylnaph-thalene and 2-methylnaphthalene have been derived. Serious poisoning in animals is reported to cause tremors and hepatic necrosis. Patient history is vital during workup, while detection of methemoglobinemia and cyanosis requires prompt therapy consisting of methylene blue and exchange transfusion. Naphthalene People are most likely to be exposed to Inhalation. 410. However, the general public may be exposed to naphthalene through inhalation of smoke from burning fossil fuels or wood, or from inhaling vehicle exhaust fumes. Naphthalene is readily absorbed through the skin and can cause skin irritation, corneal ulcerations, and cataracts (Refs.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) held an experiment where male and female rats and mice were exposed to naphthalene vapors on weekdays for two years. f High exposure to Naphthalene can cause headache, fatigue, confusion, tremor, nausea and vomiting. Industrial naphthalene-fume poisoning, chiefly with skin manifestations (Touraine and Menetrel 1934, Fanburg 1940) and especially naphthalene cataract (Bouchard and Charrin 1886, Michail and Vancea 1927) have also been often reported and investigated. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. This article is for information only. People can experience anemia after several years of exposure to naphthalene. This article is for information only. The presence of respiratory tract tumors in animals following naphthalene exposure by inhalation is sufficient to demonstrate carcinogenicity in these model systems, but the quantification of human cancer risk at low exposure levels based on these studies is a point of considerable debate. Airport personnel are at risk of occupational exposure to jet engine emissions, which similarly to diesel exhaust emissions include volatile organic compounds and particulate matter consisting of an inorganic carbon core with associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Inhalation REL (ug/m 3) Oral REL (ug/kg BW-day) Hazard Index Target Organs . Sources and route of human exposure Naphthalene toxicity may occur by all routes of exposure, whether by inhalation of vapours, ingestion and by dermal or ocular contact [1-3]. Naphthalene poisoning occurs primarily as a result of accidental mothball ingestion, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hematuria and severe respiratory, neurologic and hepatic effects. Preventing Exposure to Chemicals in Mothballs Adults, children, and pets can be exposed to naphthalene in mothballs by: Breathing in vapors (inhalation) Swallowing (ingestion) Touching (skin or dermal contact) You are most likely to be exposed to naphthalene by inhaling the vapors. Naphthalene is also a possible carcinogen. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Vital sign abnormalities include fever, tachycardia, Hazards of Crude Oil Components All of these components are inhalation hazards Some also pose a dermal exposure hazard Exposures may result in either acute or chronic effects Remember the Routes of Entry Inhalation Absorption Ingestion Injection. As little as one mothball can result in toxicity in children. Extended exposure to mothballs can also cause liver and kidney damage. This article is for information only. Answer (1 of 2): Termites use naphthalene to protect their nests. Aims: To estimate exposures to benzene and naphthalene among military personnel working with jet fuel (JP-8) and to determine whether naphthalene might serve as a surrogate for JP-8 in studies of health effects. Exposure to naphthalene can cause more serious effects, including hemolytic anemia.

fNaphthalene may damage the liver and kidneys. This can cause organ damage. The presence of respiratory tract tumors in animals following naphthalene exposure by inhalation is sufficient to demonstrate carcinogenicity in these model systems, but the quantification of human cancer risk at low exposure levels based on these studies is a point of considerable debate. repeated exposure can cause clouding of the eye lens (cataract), which may damage vision. Noun: 1. naphthalene poisoning - toxic condition resulting from inhaling or ingesting naphthalene The pesticides in mothballs are chemicals known as naphthalene and p-dichlorobenzene. Acute (short-term) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact has been associated with hemolytic anemia, liver damage, and neurological damage. Ingestion: After ingestion naphthalene causes abdominal cramps with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Physical Properties Physical description A white crystalline volatile solid with A white crystalline volatile solid with A white crystalline volatile solid with Boiling point 424F Molecular weight 128.2 Freezing point/melting point 176F Vapor pressure 0.08 mmHg Flash point 174F Vapor density 4.42 Specific gravity 1.15 Ionization potential 8.12 eV 6 more rows Petrochemicals feedstock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil

Regulatory Guidelines:The U.S. The U.S. The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for a time-weighted average (TWA) is 10 ppm or 50 mg/m 3, and the Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is 15 ppm or 75 mg/m The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is 10 ppm or 50 mg/m 3 for naphthalene. Can you sleep in a room with naphthalene balls/mothballs? Industrial naphthalene-fume poisoning, chiefly with skin manifestations (Touraine and Menetrel 1934, Fanburg 1940) and especially naphthalene cataract (Bouchard and Charrin 1886, Michail and Vancea 1927) have also been often reported and investigated. Naphthalene Methemoglobinemia Hemolytic anemia Metabolic acidosis Seizures 1. A. Naphthalene is a widely used industrial and household chemical in the form of mothballs. Rarely optic neuritis is encountered. Extended exposure to the vapors may result in cataract formation and liver damage. Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. of the substance in question and quantitative estimates of risk from oral exposure and inhalation exposure. Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed.

Based on these air monitoring data, the level of naphthalene detected (0.0002 ppm) was below its odor threshold. 3.3. f Exposure to Naphthalene may cause a skin allergy. GSH levels and histopathology were monitored during the first 24 h after exposure.

Although it is one of the most widely used pesticides, prolonged exposure to this substance should be avoided, as its inhalation, ingestion or contact can cause severe damage that must be treated immediately by a specialist. Naphthalene Methemoglobinemia Hemolytic anemia Metabolic acidosis Seizures 1. Ingestion or inhalation can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, depression, and stomach pain. NA inhalation exposure induces the expression of several genes or pathways related to lung tumor development, but with minor differences between males and females. No exposure-related gross pathologic lesions were observed at necropsy. Acute exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with haemolytic anaemia, liver damage, neurological damage in infants, and death. guidance. Naphthalene Trace 91-20-3 Sulphur Trace 7704-34-9 2. Cataracts have also been reported in workers acutely exposed to naphthalene by In 1989 there were 2,300 reported ingestion of naphthalene ball by children under the age of 6 in United States alone . Additional groups naphthalene exposure. The nose is the most sensitive toxicity target in rats and mice following chronic inhalation exposure to naphthalene. Naphthalene poisoning is an uncommon poisoning due to its pungent smell, taste, insolubility in water, and poor absorption from the gut. concentration exceeds the inhalation exposure pathway residential direct contact criterion of 6 mg/kg. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Paradichlorobenzene acute ingestions are virtually always innocuous. Both chemicals are toxic and known to cause dizziness, headaches, and irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. Naphthalene (mothball) is a commonly used deodorizer in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka. A reference concentration (RfC) for inhalation exposure to naphthalene has not been derived (U.S. EPA, 1991, 1992). If you or someone you know has been regularly inhaling moth balls or their fumes, take them to the doctor immediately. Sources and route of human exposure Naphthalene toxicity may occur by all routes of exposure, whether by inhalation of vapours, ingestion and by dermal or ocular contact [1-3]. Exposure to the hydrocarbons in motor oil can cause cancer. It rarely occurs in suicidal attempts in adults and in accidental ingestion by children. In the backyard, pool and garden shed. Ingestion in large amounts could lead to blindness and even death. CAREX defines exposure to naphthalene as inhalation exposure at work at levels exceeding those encountered in non-occupational settings, such as exposure due to inhaling urban air (i.e. This can cause organ damage. choking from inhalation of vomit after inhalant use; or; Perhaps the most significant toxic effect of chronic exposure to inhalants is widespread and long-lasting damage to the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Ammonia It is well absorbed following oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. She was treated with red blood cell transfusions, intravenous methylene Naphthalene is absorbed following oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure and its association with hemolytic anemia is well described in most textbooks. The LD 50 is 1.8 g/kg in adult rats. The metabolite of naphthalene (usually -naphthol) is the main cause of poisoning. (1992). Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Nearly all materials that are airborne can be inhaled. Safety Data Sheet Review There may be dysuria, haematuria and an acute haemolytic reaction.